International Management Review ISSN 1551-6849

Published bi-annually in March and September
IMR JOURNAL: ISSN 1551-6849
IMR is also distributed in China by China National Publications Import & Export Corporation: 714B0761

International Management Review (IMR) is a peer-reviewed journal published twice a year since 2004. IMR strives to strengthen local and cross-continental business management understanding, and creation of a global body of management knowledge by fostering dialogue among academics, researchers, and professionals from all over the world. IMR publishes both empirical and conceptual papers as well as articles that address emerging trends and concerns in the area of management, management science, management engineering, and other fields related to the broader scope of management.

The International Management Review (IMR) Journal invites the submission of papers for publication consideration. The goal of IMR is to facilitate management knowledge exchange among researchers and practitioners. IMR publishes biannually empirial and conceptual papers and scholarly researches.

The IMR independent website: www.usimr.org

Current Issue Vol 16, No 2, 2020

Authors

Dr. Ronny Richardson is a tenured Professor of Operations Management in the Coles College of Business at Kennesaw State University. His research and teaching interests are in the areas of operations management, statistics, project management, and computers. He is the author of 22 books and over 500 published articles. He has consulted with several major companies in the areas of production and inventory control. Prior to teaching, he worked for Georgia Power Company.

Dr. Max North is a tenured Professor of Management Information Systems in the Business Administration Department. He has been teaching, conducting research and providing community service for Computer Science and Information Systems departments at higher education institutions for more than twenty years. Dr. North has been successfully involved in the research of Human-Computer Interaction/Interface; Information Security and Ethics Awareness; and Virtual Reality Technology. Dr. North is the director of Visualization and Simulation Research Center/Cluster. Additionally, Dr. North has several published books, book chapters, and a number of technical referred scholarly articles. He has served as principal/co-principal investigator on a number of research grants sponsored by the Boeing Company, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, the National Science Foundation, and the National Security Agency. Dr. North's major contribution to the scientific community is his discovery and continuous research activities in the innovative area of virtual reality technology, which has received international attention and coverage in the scientific community and popular media.

Abstract

Due to the unforeseen pandemic, many educational institutions were forced to migrate from traditional teaching/learning methods to an online environment in a short period. This article measures the possible impacts on student learning via a three-stage evaluation process. The first stage surveyed faculty perspective on the success of the online part of the Spring semester and the second part focused on student perception of that same transition. The third stage compared results from selected traditional courses with comparable online counterparts. Overall, while many faculty were not familiar with the online teaching format, they were satisfied with the process and learning outcomes. Students also showed satisfaction with the online transition overall.

Keywords

traditional teaching, hybrid delivery, online learning environment, learning management systems

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Authors

Dr. Jerry S. K. Adatsi received his Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) degree in Management concentration from George Fox University in Newberg, Oregon, USA. He has extensive healthcare management experience in both the private and public sectors. His research interests are in healthcare management, quality management, and human resources development.

Dr. Katherine N. Yamamoto received her Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) degree in Management concentration from George Fox University in Newberg, Oregon, USA. She teaches Management courses for Eastern Oregon University; She also instructs in the EOU’s Agribusiness Program. She has food industry work experience and is fluent in both English and Japanese. Her research interests are in sustainability, business ethics, cross-culture, food supply chain management, and diversity and inclusion in higher education.

Dr. Robert A. Lloyd received his Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) degree in Management concentration from George Fox University in Newberg, Oregon, USA. Since 2017, he serves as a Management Faculty at Fort Hays State University. Dr. Lloyd’s research interests are in corporate social responsibility, sustainability, and organizational management.

Abstract

Performance within an organization significantly impacts success and development of the employee. Although many factors impact the success of organizations in industry, few studies have assessed high-performance government success factors. To address the gaps, this study’s objective is to explore what high-performance government success factors are by conducting a qualitative analysis. This qualitative study aimed to identify the high-performance government success factors through utilizing a qualitative case study methodology; this study uses survey interviews with human resources officers in the United States. Findings reveals high-performance government success factors, the process accomplishing high- performance government organization, and the limitations. Further, findings indicate that there is a significant lack of performance culture for the workforce within government agencies. The authors concluded that to create a high-performance government organization, the organization needs to create a strong culture, align strategies and goals of the organization with production and operations, and develop clear metrics to measure high-performance. Accomplishing a high-performance government organization requires government leadership commitment and buy-in to change management to achieve a high- performance work culture and human resources management and development strategies tailored to address the needs, mission, and objectives of government agencies. Limitations of government agency high- performance success factors unique to government agencies are discussed.

Keywords

performance, high-performance, HPO government agency performance, human resource management, high performance organizations, human resource development, success factors, United States

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Authors

Dr. Max North is a tenured Professor of Management Information Systems in the Business Administration Department. He has been teaching, conducting research and providing community service for Computer Science and Information Systems departments at higher education institutions for more than twenty years. Dr. North has been successfully involved in the research of Human-Computer Interaction/Interface; Information Security and Ethics Awareness; and Virtual Reality Technology. Dr. North is the director of Visualization and Simulation Research Center/Cluster. Additionally, Dr. North has several published books, book chapters, and a number of technical referred scholarly articles. He has served as principal/co-principal investigator on a number of research grants sponsored by the Boeing Company, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, the National Science Foundation, and the National Security Agency. Dr. North's major contribution to the scientific community is his discovery and continuous research activities in the innovative area of virtual reality technology, which has received international attention and coverage in the scientific community and popular media.

Professor James “Wes” Rhea is a Senior Lecturer of Information Systems and the Director of the Hughes Leadership and Career Program in the Coles College of Business at Kennesaw State University. His research and teaching interests are in the areas of information systems, business process management, online learning, and information security. He has contributed to various published articles. Prior to teaching, he held executive level positions as Vice-President, Chief Compliance Officer and Chief Information Officer in the telecommunications and healthcare sectors.

Armon Ansari and Zachary Sellers are contributors to initial research and preparation of this article. Affiliated as undergraduate students. Information Systems Department, Coles College of Business, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA 30144, USA.

Dr. Cyril Okhio is a faculty of Electrical Engineering in the Southern Polytechnic College of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Kennesaw State University. He is registered as a Chartered Professional Engineer with the Council of Registered Engineers, United Kingdom UK; a Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, UK and a Member of the Institute of Transportation Engineers, USA. Dr. Okhio has carried out experimental and numerical investigations of, and developed statistical analysis tools and computer codes, for the calculation of complex flows. He has been co-PI in a few successful NSF efforts in the past. He is currently involved in multi-disciplinary research and development concerning Vehicle to Vehicle, Human to Vehicle Interaction and communication, under the purview of a Transportation, Vehicular Systems and Safety Engineering hub, within the Simulation and Visualization Research Center.

Professor Lance Crimm has been the founding department chair in the Electrical Engineering department since its inception, and was instrumental in bringing several exciting and relatively new engineering degree programs to Southern Polytechnic in 2007 and 2008 such as Mechatronics Engineering among others. Professor Crimm has been a professor at Southern Polytechnic since 1997, serving in a multitude of roles as he continually seeks to savor the joys of teaching and learning from faculty, staff, and students. His research primarily consists of analyzing and conducting the effects of STEM outreach programs, both inside and outside of Higher-Ed academia. Professor Crimm is a registered Professional Engineer in the State of Georgia who recently awarded him the prestigious title of 2019 Georgia Engineer of the Year.

Dr. Sarah North is a tenured faculty member of Computer Science Department, College of Computing and Software Engineering at Kennesaw State University. Dr. North’s Doctorate degree is in Computer Science/Educational Technology and Leadership/Administration. Dr. North has been teaching, conducting research, and providing K-12 community service in computing areas for over two decades at higher education institutions. She has been successfully involved in the research in the areas of, human- computer interaction and cognitive science. Additionally, Dr. North has several book chapters; and a number of technical referred scholarly articles nationally and internationally. She also served as principal/co-principal investigator on a number of research grants sponsored by the Boeing Company, National Science Foundation (NSF), and National Security Agency (NSA).

Abstract

This article presents a primer exploration of the Department of Defense (DoD) industry, along with details concerning the chain of commands within the DoD and its business processes. It briefly provides an overview on Information Systems/Technology and how it is structured and implemented in the DoD. Furthermore, companies that have succeeded and have not completely succeeded in implementing information systems to their companies are included to assist in formulating a conclusion. After examining the DoD’s competitive advantages, studying the importance of the value chain, and applying Porter’s Five Forces, this article concludes that, while the DoD has its flaws, it is able to uphold its competitive strategy and be successful in part due to their utilization of a separate agency for information systems and technology.

Keywords

department of defense, DoD, Industry, information systems, engineering technology

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Authors

Dr. Gurumoorthi V is working as Assistant Professor in Social Work at Madurai Institute of Social Sciences. Presented papers in various academic platforms. Published 9 articles in the journal of national and international repute and authored a book. Has 5 years of teaching and 9 years of research experience. Participated in several conferences/seminars/workshops and delivered special lecture in different institutions. Area of interest includes Human Resource Management, Labour Welfare, Social Work Research, Industrial Social Work.

Mr. T. Venaktesan is Pursuing Master of Social Work in Madurai Institute of Social Sciences.

Abstract

This research study aims to explore the impact of the psychological contract on organizational citizenship behavior. It focuses on, specifically, whether there is a relationship between psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior among employees. The transactional contract and the relational contract are considered as the measurement variables of psychological contract. Meanwhile, altruism, compliance, sportsmanship, courtesy, and civic virtue are regarded as the measurement variables of organizational citizenship behavior. As suggested by the organization, 60 out of 336 employees were selected as the sample for this study by adopting convenience sampling technique. To test the hypothesis, inferential statistical tests were performed to identify whether there is a significant difference in the psychological contract and the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) among employees based on socio- demographic factors and, also, to find the relationship between organizational variables. Findings have shown the psychological contract, and organizational citizenship behavior is varied as a low, moderate, or high level among employees. Furthermore, there is a significant positive relationship between psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior. Through regression analysis, it is found that psychological contract influences the organizational citizenship behavior and one of its dimensions: sportsmanship.

Keywords

psychological contract, organizational citizenship behavior, variables, dimensions, impact

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Author

Dr. Sonia Bhatt is a lecturer in the Humanities and Management Science Department at Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, India. She has done Master of Business Administration from New Delhi Institutions of Management, New Delhi and Ph.D from Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University. Her current research interest includes online shopping behavior, E-commerce, M-commerce, E-retailing, Digital Marketing and Social media. Her research has appeared in Asia-Pacific Management Accounting Journal, Vision Journal of Indian Taxation, other referred journal and several international conference proceedings.

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of small retailers toward online selling of products in India. This study determines retailers’ awareness of and willingness to use the bricks-and- clicks approach and the concerns of retailers for the cost of opening an online shop in an established website. This study suggests that retailers are aware of E-retailing but still are not connected to the online business, as they perceive that online selling of their products is a complex process and will incur high costs. E- commerce players should promote the facts that online selling of products is not costly and is, instead, economical.

Keywords

online selling, e-retailing, electronic retailing, multi-channel retailing, retailers, omni- channel retailing

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Authors

V Vasavi is working at present as an Assistant professor of Commerce at Government Degree College, Nagari which is affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati. She has entered into the field of teaching in the year 2002, by getting through the exam conducted by the Andhra Pradesh Public Service Commission. She has been awarded M.Phil degree in the year 2009 and at present she is pursuing the research work for the degree of Ph.D. She qualified National Eligibility Test (UGC NET) being conducted by the UGC, the regulator of higher education in India and State Eligibility Test (AP SET) being conducted by the Andhra Pradesh state government in the year 2012. She is a life member of Indian Commerce Association. She attended a number of national and international seminars and presented articles which got published with ISBN.

Dr. P Mohan Reddy is currently serving the department of commerce, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati as a Professor of Commerce. Additionally, at present he is rendering his services as the chairman of board of studies (Commerce) of S V University. He has been in the teaching profession since 1992. During his long career, he held various administrative posts such as Head of the department of Commerce, S V University, member of expert committee, National Board of Accreditation, New Delhi, an external member of board of studies of various universities etc. He is a life member of various organizations such as ICA, IIPA, AIAA, IBF and FI. He has a credit of publishing 16 books and 162 articles so far. He has successfully guided 21 scholars for the degree of Ph.D and 7 scholars for the degree of M.Phil. He received the Best Teacher Award from the government of Andhra Pradesh in the year 2017.

Abstract

Insurance has been playing a vital role in advanced and emerging nations and has been recognized as a reliable tool for the mobilization of public savings. In India, the insurance sector has gone through various phases, such as deregulation, regulation, nationalization, privatization and globalization. Liberalization has paved the way for the entry of many private players that have the support of foreign partners. Since 2000, the Indian life insurance sector has been characterized by intense competition between the private and public sector players and within the private sector players. Against this backdrop, this study aims to examine the earnings and profitability performance of ICICI Life and SBI Life during the period 2010-11 to 2017-18 by employing indicators from the CARAMEL framework. For further analysis of the data, a t- test is applied, and the results of the t-test reveal that there is a significant difference in the performance of selected insurers.

Keywords

ICICI Life, SBI Life, CARAMEL framework, t-test

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Author

Dr. Mahmoud Haj is an associate professor of Finance and Economics at Grambling State University Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance. He has a Ph.D. in Financial Economics, majoring in Corporate Finance, Investment and Financial institutions. He is interested in emerging stock markets and their characteristics as efficiency, volatility, and anomalies.

Abstract

Market efficiency states that stock prices are fairly priced and reflect all available information in the market. The arrival of new information will be instantly reflected in the new stock prices and no investor will be able to achieve abnormal return more than the market offers. However, researchers have shown that in certain dates stock prices go up compared to the rest of the period. The dates are called anomalies or calendar effects. These anomalies have been show to exist in both mature and emerging stock markets. This paper examines the existence of three types of calendar effects; the month-of-the-year, the turn-of-year, and the turn-of-the fiscal year in the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) for the period 1978-2018. This researcher concludes that except for the sub-period 1993-2018 where the turn-of-the-financial year is present, none of the calendar anomalies are present in the Amman Stock Exchange.

Keywords

efficient market hypothesis, emerging markets, Amman Stock Exchange, calendar effects

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Authors

Samit Kumar is a Graduate in Agriculture from G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, India, and holds MBA in Agri-Business Management from National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management, MANAGE, Hyderabad, India. He has been serving the Agribusiness Industry for the last 15 years, and has worked in various companies like Mahyco-Monsanto Biotech, NCDEX, Maple Orgtech, Mahindra & Mahindra and Camson Bio Technologies Ltd.; cutting across various functions and echelons. His area of competence and predilection includes Value Chain Analysis, Agri- Commodities-Spot-Futures-e-Markets, Digital Marketing, Agri-Input Marketing, Organic Farming, Six Sigma, Cloud Computing, Big Data Analytics, Internet of Things (IoT), Block Chain Technology and Scrum Framework.

Abstract

The Himalayan challenges encompassing Indian agriculture at present is the deterioration of soi1l quality, the decrease in quantity and quality of farm produce, the indiscriminate use of agrochemicals and synthetic fertilizers, unattractive price remuneration for producers, exiguous water availability for irrigation, poor post-harvest practices, and unpredictable weather conditions. Corollaries to these appalling situations include growers who are further prone to distress sales, inaccessibility to formal credit, insufficient market intelligence, detachment from mainstream commercial supply chains, bleak information networks, counterfeit agri-inputs, and mediocre crop management practices. When it comes to organic agriculture, there are many hard challenges, as the protocols are much more stringent and unforgiving. Today, organic agriculture should undergo a paradigm shift from being only traditional to being organic smart agriculture (OSA) in which the technological intercropping (TI) is present with various information and communication technologies (ICTs) and digital technologies, like IoT, cloud computing and big data analytics. This would play a key role in maneuvering desirable information and tools, leading to better decision-making and risk management. Making the organic agriculture smart would involve using the latest high-yielding agricultural technologies coupled up with the value-based technological interventions for improving agricultural productivity and sustainability, all the while remaining globally competitive and environment friendly. However, given the technological complexities and asymmetry in information networks, small and marginal farmers may not be able to comprehend or come on this platform single handedly; therefore, the role of farmer-based organizations like farmer producer organizations (FPOs), farmer clubs, NGOs operating in rural areas, SHGs, rural formal credit institutions (RFCI), including micro finance institutions (MFIs), crop insurance service providers, panchayat bodies, post offices, certification bodies, etc., will be absolutely critical to strategize and execute the entire game plan. The author envisions a CONSORTIUM DRIVEN MULTIPLE STAKEHOLDER MODEL (CDMSM) for providing these analytics services to the rural diaspora in a customized manner. The idea is to utilize the existing infrastructure available in rural/rural town areas by technologically upgrading them for reaching out to the organic small and marginal farmers. Hence, this would be a cost-effective and faster means to educate and coach the organic grower community. Further, the rural unemployed youths can be trained to act as infopreneurs, and they can be employed with the above-mentioned stakeholder bodies for installation of sensors and proper dissemination of information. Again, the possibility of carbon credit can be worked out, as well as once the technological intercropping takes a concrete shape as the data and information collected integrated with the upgraded infrastructure can be used to do the carbon audit, credit/debit, and trade.

Keywords

ICT, analytics, big data, internet of things, IoT, cloud computing, organic agriculture, smart agriculture, intercropping infopreneurs

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